History of Tripura in short
History of Tripura in short | Know your state.
Tripura's police force is as ancient as the state itself. During princely rule, each hill tribe had an indigenous police agency built on self-governing institutions based on their primitive social norms and procedures that moved to this country in consecutive waves from various uplands. As a result, the people of the State enjoyed self-government. Their relationship with the royal at the time was mostly limited to the collecting of taxes and the distribution of periodic nazaranas.
The administration at the time was feudal in character, with no line of formal hierarchical authority. Because the monarch was supreme, there was no need for a distinct institution called the Police to enforce law and order. The military was used by the early monarchs for domestic administration, repression of chieftain rebellions, war, and conquest.
Policing during the Manikya Dynasty:
Raja Ratna Manikya (1325–1350) is regarded as the first king of Tripura, bringing significant reform to the government as well as the indigenous police system in the Muslim administrative system of Bengal throughout his reign. The Nawab of Bengal is supposed to have bestowed the title "Manikya" on him. He took three experienced Bengalis with him to Tripura, who assisted in the establishment of an administrative structure based on Muslim principles. The plain Tripura, then known as Tipperah, and its surrounding lands were directly administered by the King. There were 'Binidias,' special sort of police under direct authority of the monarch, who served as conduits to tell tribe leaders about the King's orders/formans and were also empowered to arrest anybody for defiance of the King's command, etc. The remote territories were administered by regional administrators called as 'Laskars,' who used their position as police officials to collect taxes from tribal leaders.
During the late 16th century, Raja Amar Manikya established the title of 'Thanadars' and held control as province ruler. Before 1870, there was no written code, no court of law, and no jail.
When the British began to impose their dominance and supremacy on the former monarchs in 1761, the kings were required to obtain permission from the British ruler before purchasing or collecting even a rifle.
However, modernisation of the administrative system in 'Independent Hill Tipperah' began in the aftermath of various administrative changes established by Raja Birchandra Manikya in the line of British administration during his dictatorship from 1862 to 1896. Because there was no judicial procedure, the courts of Tripura delivered justice according to a rudimentary system of fairness and good conscience till 1873-74. Following that, the Tripura King enacted the Acts of Government of Bengal and the Acts of British India. In 1873-74, nine acts were approved, including the Criminal Procedure Code, the Police Code, the Cattle Trespass Act, and the Civil Procedure Code, among others.
According to the inaugural Annual Administrative Report of the Political Agency of Hill Tipperah in 1872, the Raja's police force numbered around 200 men. In the Civil Police, there were four Darogas, 37 Jamadars/other officials, and 173 burkandazes. Thanas and Outposts were counted as 8 and 10, respectively.
According to the administrative report for the year 1884-85, the Magistrate of Agartala was in control of the whole police force of the State, with three headquarters located in Agartala, Sonamura, and Kailashahar, each led by one Inspector who reported to the Magistrate of Agartala. According to the norms in effect in British territory, each Thana was assigned to a Sub-Inspector, and each Outpost was assigned to a Jamadar or Head Constable. Throughout all, there were 18 Thanas and 4 Outposts in the state.
Following Annual Reports indicated that the number of Thanas and Outposts, as well as the overall strength of the Police force, varied according to the existing law and order situation and other difficulties. In general, each Thana had an average of 1 officer and 5 soldiers.
In addition to their primary tasks of maintaining peace and law and order, police officers/men were Collectors of Forest Revenue, Cotton Revenue, Chowkidari Tax, and, in some regions, Land Revenue. There was also a troop of 'Binindias' or 'Tipperah Burkandazes' whose primary responsibility was to serve procedures on the hill inhabitants. In the kingdom, there was no organised system of local police. Chowkidars were often exclusively hired in headquarters stations. The village chiefs reported crime and other happenings in the interior.
In 1886-87, four new positions of Head Police officers with the title 'Superintendent' were formed to administer and supervise the Police and Cotton departments, as well as the revenue work of four divisions who were subject to the Sub-Divisional officers.
Maharaja Radha Kishore Manikya (1896-1909) instituted the separation of the Police Department and the Revenue Department. Police personnel handled the state's police and tehsil duties until 1905. The Raja completely reformed the Police Department in 1907, freeing the police of tax collection. Mr. Ananda Mohan Guha was the Raja's first Superintendent of Police following the split. Kumar Brajendra Kishore was appointed as the police administration's chief.
During the reign of Maharaja Birendra Kishore Manikya Bahadur (1909-1923), the State Civil Service was recreated on March 31, 1916, with the purpose of recruiting high-ranking state officials, including the Superintendent of Police and Deputy Superintendent of Police. In 1911, the new Arms Act and the Penal Code Amendment Act were approved. The Superintendent of Police at the time was Mr. Kamini Kumar Sinha. The Superintendent of Police was required to conduct a thorough inspection of Thanas.
The police force to population ratio was 1 to 656 and the police force to area ratio was 1 to 11.67 square miles. The entire police expense was Rs.46, 977/-.
Bir Bikram Kishore, Maharaja Manikya Bahadur, who ruled from 1923 until 1947, was the final King. This was the most chaotic moment in Tripura's and India's history. Political activities gained a fresh lease of life. During the sectarian riots in Bengal, a considerable number of refugees entered the state, triggering population shifts and ethnic tensions in some areas. The Reang-revolt headed by Ratan Moni Reang was put down by heavy police intervention. During his presidency, the police and military forces became a well-organized force. The Indian Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1908 (Act XIV of 1908) as revised in 1942 was enacted.
Policing in the aftermath of the merger with India:
The old princely state fell under the administration of the government of India on October 15, 1949, following a merger agreement signed by Kanchan Prabha Devi, the regent maharani, and C. Rajagopalachari, the Governor General of India, marking the conclusion of several hundred years of reign by 184 Kings. Following the merger, Tripura became a centrally governed part C state led by a Chief Commissioner. The Tripura Administration Order 1949 preserved all previous legislation in force in Tripura. Up till August 31, 1970, Tripura was a single district territory with one District Magistrate & Collector and one Superintendent of Police.
Following that, three districts were established, with three DM & Collectors and three Superintendents of Police serving as the District's Civil and Police Department leaders. A new position of Superintendent of Police, CID, was established, with headquarters in Agartala. Tripura Armed Police was reformed under the command of a Commandant.
When Tripura gained statehood on January 21, 1972, the position of Chief Secretary was promoted to that of Joint Secretary of the Government of India. The Manipur-Tripura Cadre was established to create a single cadre comprising IAS, IPS, and IFS cadres. The number of IAS officers has been increased to 21, IPS to 8, and IFS to 4.
In January 2012, the Vice President of India bestowed the President's Colour on Tripura Police, the fourth police force in India to acquire this honour, for their effectiveness in battling the state's three-decade-long insurgency and ensuring that no human rights violations occurred.
On Statehood Day in 2012, the number of Districts was expanded from four to eight in order to better serve the people. As a result, Tripura received a full-fledged distinct cadre of IPS officers in 2015.
The progressive development and enhancement of the police structure has resulted in the current full-fledged form, which delivers transparency, a citizen-centric approach, and the rule of law as intended in the Indian Constitution.